вторник, 29 декември 2009 г.

Hamlet's Monologue


Hamlet:

To be or not to be: that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them? To die: to sleep;
No more; and by a sleep to say we end
The heart-ache and the thousand natural shocks
That flesh is heir to, 'tis a consummation
Devoulty to de wish'd. To die, to sleep;
To sleep: perchance to dream: ay, there's the rub;
For in that sleep of death what dreams may come
When we have shuffled off this mortal coil,
Must give us pause: there's the respect
That makes calamity of so long life;
For who would bear the whips and scorns of time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
The pangs of despised love, the law's dely,
The insolence of office and the spurns
That patient merit of the unworthy takes,
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin? who would fardels bear,
To grunt and sweat under a weary life,
But that the dread of something after death,
The undiscover'd country from whose bourn
No traveller returns puzzies the will
And makes us rather bear those ills we have
That fly to other that we know not of?
Thus conscience does make cowards of us all;
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought,
And enterprises of great pitch and moment
With this regard their currents turn away,
And lose the name of action. - Soft you now!
The fair Ophelia! Nymph, in thy orisons
Be all my sins remember'd.

THE GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

The general theory of relativity derives its origin from the need to extend the new space and time concepts of the special theory of relativity from the domain of electric and magnetic phenomena to all of physics and, particularly, to the theory of gravitation. As space and time relations underlie all physical phenomena, it is conceptually intolerable to have to use mutually contradictory notions of space and time in dealing with different kind of interactions, particularly in view of the fact that the same particles may interact with each other in several different ways-electromagnetically, gravitationally, and by way of so-called nuclear forces.

Newton's explanation of gravitational interactions must be considered one of the most successful physical theories of all times. It accounts for the motions of all the constituents of the solar system with uncanny accuracy, permitting, for instance, the prediction of eclipses hundreds of years ahead. But Newton's theory visualizes the gravitational pull that the sun exerts on the planets and the pull that the planets in turn exerts on their moons and on each other as taking place instantaneously over the vast distances of interplanetary space, whereas according to relativistic notions of space and time any and all interactions cannot spread faster than the speed of light. The difference may be unimportant, for practical reasons, as all of the members of the solar system move at relative speeds far less than 1/1000 of the speed of light; nevertheless, relativistic space-time and Newton's instantaneous action at a distance are fundamentally incompatible. Hence Einstein set out to develop a theory of gravitation that would be consistent with relativity.

Proceeding on the basis of the experience gained from Maxwell's theory of the electric field, Einstein postulated the existence of gravitational field that propagates at the speed of light, c, and that will mediate an attraction as closely as possible equal to the attraction obtained from Newton's theory. From the outset it was clear that mathematically a field theory of gravitation would be more involved than that of electricity and magnetism. whereas the source of the electric field, the electric charges of particles, have values independent of the state of motion of the instruments by which these charges are measured, the source of the gravitational field, the mass of a particle, varies with the speed of the particle relative to the frames of reference in which it is determined and hence will have different values in different frames of reference. This complicating factor introduces into the task of constructing a relativistic theory of the gravitational field a measure of ambiguity, which Einstein resolved eventually by invoking the principle of equivalence.

THE PRINCIPLE OF EQUIVALENCE. Everyday experience indicates that in a given field of gravity, such as the field caused by the Earth, the greater the mass of abody the greater the force acting on it. That is to say, the more massive a body the more effectively will it tend to fall toward the Earth; in fact, in order to determine the mass of a body one weighs it-that is to say, one really measures the force by which it is attracted to the Earth, whereas the mass is properly defined as the body's resistance to acceleration. Newton noted that the radio of the attractive forces to a body's mass in a given field is the same for all bodies, irrespective of their chemical constitution and other characteristics, and that they all undergo the same acceleration in free fall; this common rate of acceleration on the surface of the Earth amounts to an increase in speed by approximately 32 feet (about 9.8 metres) per second every second.

This common rate of gravitationally caused acceleration is illustrated dramatically in space travel during periods of coasting. The vehicle, the astronauts, and all other objects within the space capsule undergo the same acceleration, hence no acceleration relative to each other. The result is apparent weightlessness; no force holds the astronaut to the floor of his cabin or a liquid in an open container. To this extent, the behaviour of objects within the freely coasting space capsule is indistinguishable from the condition that would be encountered if the space capsule were outside all gravitational fields in interstellar space and moved in accordance with the law of inertia. Conversely, if a space capsule were to be accelerated upward by its rocket engines in the absence of gravitation, all objects inside would behave exactly as if the capsule were at rest but in a gravitational field. The principle of equivalence states formally the equivalence, in terms of local experiment, of gravitational forces and reactions to an accelerated noninertial frame of reference (e.g., the capsule while the rockets are being fired) and the equivalence between inertial frames of reference and local freely falling frames of reference. Of course, the principle of equivalence refers strictly to local effects: looking out of his window and performing navigational observations, the astronaut can tell how he is moving relative to the planets and moons of the solar system.

Einstein argued, however, that in the presence of gravitational fields there is no unambiguous way to separate gravitational pull from the effects occasioned by the noninertial character of one's chosen frame of reference; hence one cannot identify an inertial frame of reference with complete precision. Thus the principle of equivalence renders the gravitational field fundamentally different from all other force fields encountered in nature. The new theory of gravitation, the general theory of relativity, adopts this characteristic of the gravitational field as its foundation.

Curved space-time. The principles. In terms of Minkowski's space-time, inertial frames of reference are the analogues of rectilinear (straight-line) Cartesian coordinate systems in Euclidean geometry. In a plan these coordinate systems always exist, but they do not exist on the surface of a sphere: any attempt to cover a spherical surface with a grid of squares breaks down when the grid is extended over a significant fraction of the soherical surface. Thus a plane is a flat surface, whereas the surface of a sphere is curved. This distinction, based entirely on internal properties of the surface itself, classifies the surface of a cylinder as flat, as it can be rolled off on a plane and thus is capable of being covered by agrid of squares.

Einstein conjectured that the presence of a gravitationalfield causes space-time to be curved (whereas in the absence of gravitation it is flat), and that this is the reason that inertial frames cannot be constructed. The curved trajectory of a particle in space and time resulting from the effects of gravitation would then represent not a sraight line (which exists only in flat spaces and space-time) but the straightest curve possible in a curvedspace-time, a geodesic. Geodesics on a sphere (such as the surface of the Earth) are the great circles. (The plane of any great circle goes through the centre of the Earth.) They are the least curved lines one can construct on the surface of a sphere, and they are the shortest curves connecting any two points. The geodesics of space-time connect two events(of two instanta in the history of one particle) with the greatest lapse of proper time, as was indicated in theearlier discussion of the twin paradox.

If the presence of a gravitational field amounts to a curvature of space-time, then the description of the gravitational field in turn hinges on a mathematical elucrdaton of the curvature of four-dimensional space-time. Before Einstein, the German mathematician Bernfars Riemannn (1826-66) had deveoped methods related directly to the failure of any attempt to construct square grids. If one were to construct within any small piece of (two-dimensional) surface a quadrilateral whose sides are geodesics, if the surface were flat, the sum of the angels at the four corners would be 360. If the surface is not flat, the sum of the angles will not be 360. The deviation of the actual sum of the angles from 360 will be proportional to the area of the quadrilateral; the amount of deviation per unit of surface will be a measure of the curvature of that surface. If the surface is imbedded in a higher dimensional continum, then one can consider similary unavoidable angles between vectors constructed as parallel as possible to each other at the four corners of the quadrilateral, and thus associate several distinct components of curvature with one surface. And, of course, there are several independent possible orientations of two-dimensional surfaces, for instance, six in a four-dimensional continuum. such as space-time. Altogether there are 20 distinct and independent components of curvatured defined at each point of of space-time; in mathematics these are referred to the 20 components of Riemann's curvature tension.

The mathematical expression. Einstein discovered that he could relate 10 of these components in a natural way to the sources of the gravitational field, mass (or energy), density, momentum density, and stress, if he were to duplicate approximately Newton's equations of the gravitational field and, at the same time, formulate laws that would take the same form regardless of the choice of frame of reference. The remaining 10 components may be chosen arbitrarily at any one point but are related to each other by partial differential equations at neighbouring points. Einstein derived a field equation that, along with the rule that a freely falling body moves along a geodesic, forms the comprehensive treatment of gravitation known as the general theory of relativity.
In contrast to some vulgarized popular nontions of it, which confuse it with moral and other forms of relativism, Einstein's theory does not argue that "all is relative."On the contrary, it is largely a theory based upon those physical attributes that do not change, or, in the language of the theory,that are invariant.

In the begining of my essay I've mentioned about the famous German-American physicist A. Einstein. He was born on March 14 1870 Wurttember, Germany and died on 18 April 1955, Princeton N.J., U.S. He developed the theories of relativity, the equivalence of mass and energy, and the foton theory of light. In 1921 Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize for his photoelectric law and work in theoretical physics.

There are actually two distinct theories of relativity known in physics, one called the special theory of relativity, the other - the general theory of relativity. Einstein proposed the first in 1905, the second in 1916. Whereas the special theory of relativity is concerned primarily with electric and magnetic phenomena and with their propagation in space and time, the general theoryof relativity was developed primarily in order to deal with gravitation. Both theories centre on new approaches to space and time, approaches that differ profoundly from those useful in everyday life; but relativistic notions of space and time are inextricably woven into any contemporary interpretation of physical phenomena ranging from the atom to the universe as a whole.
Relativity is concerned with measurements made by different observers moving relative to one another. in classical physics it was assumed that all observers anywhere in the universe, whehter moving or not, obtained identical measurements of space and time intervals. According to relativity theory, this is not so, but their resolts depend on their relative motions.

The general theory of relativity derives it's origin from the need to extend the new space and time concepts of the special theory of relativity from the domain of electric and magnetic phenomena to all of physics and, particularly, to the theory of gravitation. As space and time relations underlie all physical phenomena, it is conceptually intolerable to have to use mutually contradictory notions of space and time in dealing with different kind of interactions, particularly in view of the fact that the same particles may interact with each other in several different ways-electromagnetically, gravitationally, and by way of so-called nuclear forces.


EINSTEIN'S GENERAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY

The theory of relativity forms the background of all modern cosmological theories. It was created by Albert Einstein.
A. Einstein was born on March 14 1870 Wurttember, Germany and died on 18 April 1955 ,Princeton N.J., U.S. He is German-American physicist who developed the special and general theories of relativity. The equivalence of mass and energy, and the foton theory of light.

Einstein earned a doctorate at the Polytechnic Academy in Zurich in 1905. And in the same year he published four research papers each containing a great discovery in physics. International fame came to Einstein in 1919 with the announcement that a prediction of his general theory of relativity was verified. Two years later he was awarded the Nobel Prize for his photoelectric law and work in theoretical physics Einstein continued his work in general relativity, the unified field theories, and the critical discussion of the interpretation of quantum theory. In 1945 Einstein retired from his position at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton but continued to work there until his death in 1955.

Relativity is concerned with measurements made by different observers moving relative to one another. in classical physics it was assumed that all observers anywhere in the universe, whehter moving or not, obtained identical measurements of space and time intervals. According to relativity theory, this is not so, but their results depend on their relative motions.

There are actually two distinct theories of relativity known in physics, one called the special theory of relativity, the other the other the general theory of relativity. Albert Einstein proposed the first in 1905, the second in 1916. Whereas the special theory of relativity is concerned primarily with electric and magnetic phenomena and with their propagation in space and time, the general theory relativity was developed primarily in order to deal with gravitation. Both theories centre on new approaches to space and time, approaches that differ profoundly from those useful in everyday life; but relativistic notions of space and time are inextricably woven into any contemporary interpretation of physical phenomena ranging from the atom to the universe as a whole.

Specific and unusual relativistic effects flow directly from Einstein's two basic postulates, which are formulated in terms of so-called inertial reference frames. These are reference systems that move in such a way that in them Newton's first law, the law of inertia, is valid. The set of inertial frames consists of all those that move with constant velocity with respect to each other (accelerating frames therefore being excluded). Einstein's postulates are:

(1) All observers, whatever their state of motion relative to a light source, measure the same speed for light;
(2) The laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames.

The first postulate, the constancy of the speed of the light, is an experimental fact from which follows the distinctive relatevistic phenomena of space contraction, time dilation, and the relativity of simultaneity: as measured by an observer assumed to be at rest, an object in motion is contracted along the direction of its motion, and moving clock run slow; two spatially separated events that are simultaneous for a stationary observer occur sequentially for amoving observer. As a consequence, space intervals in three-dimensional space are related to time intervals, thus forming so-called four-dimensional space-time.

The second postulate is called the principle of relativity. It is equally valid in classical mechanics (but not in classical electrodynamics until Einstein reinterpreted it). This postulate implies, for example, that table tennis played on a train moving with constant velocity is just like table tennis played with the train at rest, the states of rest and motion being physically indistinguishable. In relativity theory, mechanical quantities such as momentum and energy have forms that are different from their classical counterparts but give the same values for speed that are small compared to the speed of light, the maximum permissible speed in nature (about 300000 kilometres per second). According to relativity, mass and energy are equivalent and interchangeable quantities, the equivalence being expressed by Einstein's famous equation E=mc2(c.c), where m is the mass of the object and c is the speed of light.

The general theory of relativity is Einstein's theory of gravitation, which uses the principle of the equivalence of gravitation and locally accelerating frames of reference. Einstein's theory has special mathematical beauty; it generalizes the "flat" space-time concept of special relativity to one of curvature.

NGOs For an enlarged union


Summary of the Project
information, Training and Scholarship Programme (First Phase)
"NGOs For an enlarged union"

First phase of the programme "NGOs for Enlarged Europe" financially supported by Charles Stewart Mott Foundation has been launched at the end of 2001 and has been completed in spring 2003. Second phase of the programme "Looking Beyond Enlargement" has commenced in June 2003 and will run until the end of 2004. In this phase ECAS will focus on activities in Bulgaria, Romania and Slovenia. More attention will be also paid to the training on access and implementation of Structural Funds. Fore more information about the second phase of the programme, please see: The Information, Training and Scholarship Programme – Looking Beyond Enlargement. Following is the description of the first phase of the project Information, Training and Scholarship.


The programme has been developed by ECAS after several consultations with NGOs in EU future member states (Hungary, Poland, Estonia, Lithuania and Slovenia). Several weaknesses and constraints in the NGO community in their approach to the European Union, which at present threaten to reduce the effectiveness of NGOs' action at European level have been identified. The weaknesses could be summarised as a lack of knowledge about EU policies and legislation, which makes it difficult for NGOs to develop a European strategy and to access existing EU funds.
There is also a question of isolation within the NGO sector, as many organisations cannot benefit from the existence of effective European networks. Moreover, many NGOs suffer from very limited resources to improve their knowledge and competencies. They cannot afford consultancy fees for external expertise; therefore they need to develop this expertise within the NGO community itself. There is also a lack of confidence and of strategic approach towards EU fund seeking. There is a danger due to NGOs' perception that they are joining established Institutions and policies, which they cannot change. They may see the European Commission largely as a mere source of funding, and therefore lose all the value-added of contributing to shaping EU policies.

The main aim of the programme is to create a viable group of EU affairs specialists in the national NGO community. The information, training and scholarship programme will help them to overcome the weaknesses and prepare them for an EU membership by providing them with: 
  • Up-to-date and NGO-relevant information on the recent developments concerning EU policies, legislation and funding opportunities.  NGOs in the future EU member states need this type if information in order to put together a viable European strategy and to play an active role in the making of an open, democratic and enlarged Union.


  • Training based on a multi-disciplinary approach covering all types of NGO activity. The main aim of the training is to increase their capacity to absorb and manage the available funding, as well as carrying out advocacy work effectively. 

  • The possibility to spend some time in Brussels, in order to get familiar with EU Institutions directly on the spot – "modus operandi".


The programme is divided into three different parts:
1.      Information Programme
The main aim of the information programme is to share insights, from NGOs for NGOs into the workings of the EU; i.e. to select and interpret (from official documents) what is relevant to NGOs in a way which addresses their objectives and practical concerns. The website is a key item as it will provide the participants with updated information on the progress of the programme, which will be available directly on line. In addition, all reports and materials will be freely accessible to the NGOs, not just participants. The website will provide the following information and support: 
  • Briefings on EU policies and contacts;

  • Information on EU funding;

  • Relationship between NGOs and the European Institutions;

  • Help in finding partners;

  • Information on activities or services of interest to NGOs.

The centrepiece is the ECAS guide to EU funding for NGOs. Most internal EU funding programmes have opened up in anticipation of enlargement, the pre-accession funds are now running, and it will soon be possible for the NGOs to take parts as partners in the structural funds.. The ECAS' Guide is the first publication to tie in all the areas involved in EU funding for enlargement.
2.      The Training Program
The program has been designed to include both theoretical and practical training. It will start with a two-week in country training course followed by practical training for the NGO representatives participating in the study visits to Brussels. Participants should include both national and grass-root level NGOs from different geographical areas, active in different sectors.

The programme will be implemented with the support of local partner organisations in each candidate country. It consists of four 2-day workshops consisting of a combination of lectures, dialogue with experts and practical activity.

The four workshops include the following topics:

  • Structure – the EU decision-making process, the EU institutions, the role of outside organisations (NGOs), The relationship between the EU institutions and NGOs, etc.    

  •  Enlargement - All aspects of the enlargement process; the status of each participant's country in that process; the role of NGOs, etc.

  • Fundraising  - EU funding policies; funding opportunities for NGOs; the application process, the project cycle, etc.

  • Advocacy  - Advocacy's place in the EU; the techniques for greatest effect; the role of NGOs and umbrella organisations in the process; the role of ECAS.

Followed by:
  • Study Visit - The three-day study visits to Brussels provide participants with first hand knowledge of the European Institutions, and the decision making process.   

The programme for the study visit will include:
  • On-site visit and meetings in the Brussels-based Institutions (Commission, European Parliament, Council of Ministers).

  • Meeting between the full group and ECAS, to include presentations by representatives of the EU Institutions and European NGOs.

  • The Group will then split up into 3-4 smaller groups categorised by themes in order to visit specialised departments and European NGOs in which they have an interest. 

3.      The Scholarship Program
There is no actual substitute to seeing the EU institutions in action; therefore a longer stay in Brussels for one or more NGO representative for each candidate country should follow the study visit. A working period of at least three months would be desirable, given the complexity of EU affairs and the fact that the NGO contact person in Brussels would have a wide-ranging brief. The goal of the working period is for the NGO contact person to become a full-fledged expert and be identified in their home country as the person with the necessary contacts with Commission officials, MEPs, and NGO networks. 

The scholarship programme will include the use of an equipped rent-free office in Brussels. In addition it will also include assistance from ECAS and CAF with advice on contacts outside and inside Brussels (MEPs, EU institutions and NGOs to contact); information about EU funds, policies, and the decision-making process.

Who can take part in the Scholarship program?

The main qualification is not to be an expert on the European Union, but it is rather a question of being committed to the NGO sector at home. People who are motivated and have a clear objective can, with help, learn very quickly how to find their way around the EU. 2-3 years of experience from the sector at home is expected.

As scholars are expected to develop contacts, monitor funding opportunities for the NGO sector, do advocacy work, and get in touch with European umbrella groups, we expect them to be proactive, have a real sense of initiative and excellent communications skills (English, French being an advantage).

It would be the responsibility of the NGO community back home to establish specific tasks for the scholars in relation to the situation in the home country (negotiation and screening).

For latest information about the scholarship program please see
News/Updates


Partners

The national partner organisation(s).

a)  The partners are responsible of setting up a steering committee around the program which will represent the NGO sector (it should be as representative as possible of the national NGO sector). The steering committee will help the national partners in developing the information and training program and to adapt it to the needs of the NGO sector together with ECAS.

b)  The partners are responsible for all the logistical arrangements for the training program and the study visits. In particular, local organisations will be responsible for spreading and adapting the information to NGOs in the candidate countries, to assist in the selection of trainers, and to select participants together with the steering committee to the training and scholarship program in Brussels.


Euro Citizen Action Service (ECAS)


ECAS will have the overall responsibility to manage and co-ordinate the project from Brussels. Moreover, ECAS will be the main responsible partner for the contents and the structure of the training program (topics to be covered, material to be used, international trainers to be involved, etc).
 
Links to partner organizations in the future EU member states.

Civil Society Development Foundation (Nadace rozvoje obcanske spolecnosti), Prague, Czech Republic

Civil Society Development Foundation, Bucharest, Romania

Slovak Academic and Information Agency (SAIA), Bratislava, Slovakia
Slovene Centre for information service, co-operation and development of NGOs www.cnvos.si
European House

For external resources on Enlargement

Лечение при инфекция с бактерии Escherichia coli

Тази отвара действа като мощен уроантисептик и особено добре повлиява при инфекция с бактерии Escherichia coli.

Начин на приготвяне:
Набирате 50 корена магданоз, заедно с надземната част;
измиват се, нарязват се на едро, поставят се в 1л вода и се оставят да врят на тих огън докато водата изври наполовина.
След като отварата изстине малко, се прецежда и към нея се прибавят сока от 1кг лимони и 1/2кг чист пчелен мед.
Приема се 3 пъти на ден по 1 кафена чаша преди ядене. Това количество е достатъчно за 5 дни (1 доза), но при криза се приемат последователно 3 дози (3 x 5 дни). Обикновено, ефектът започва да се усеща след втората доза.

Семчиново

3 защитени зони – езеро скали

Газифицирани

Ски

Еко

капацитет 120 места в един апартамент и стаи с по 2,3,4,5 и повече легла.

Всички стаи са с мивки и етажни санитарни възли и бани. Хижата е водоснабдена и електрифицирана, с централно отопление. Разполага с ресторант, лавка и дискотек


Казват, че в този район се срещали единични представители на бряст, дървесен вид застрашен от изчезване в Европа, поради върлуването на някаква болест по представителите му. В този случай правилото, че нещата обикновено у нас идват с закъснение се проявява в положителен аспект.

ЕЗЕРОТО

Категория: Защитена местност

Местоположение: с. Семчиново, община: Септември, област: Пазарджик, с. Симеоновец, община: Септември, област: Пазарджик

Площ: 5.80 хектара

РИОСВ: Пазарджик ул. "Гурко" N3 ет.4 п.к.220

Документи на обявяване:ЗАПОВЕД No.РД403 от 03.04.2003

Цели на обявяване :

1. Опазване на характерен ландшафт.



ЛАТИН ДОЛ

Категория: Защитена местност

Местоположение: с. Семчиново, община: Септември, област: Пазарджик

Площ: 8.30 хектара

РИОСВ: Пазарджик ул. "Гурко" N3 ет.4 п.к.220

Документи на обявяване:ЗАПОВЕД No.РД409 от 03.04.2003

Цели на обявяване :

1. Опазване на характерен ландшафт.

МИЛЕВИ СКАЛИ

Категория: Защитена местност

Местоположение: с. Драгиново, община: Велинград, област: Пазарджик, с. Семчиново, община: Септември, област: Пазарджик, с. Симеоновец, община: Септември, област: Пазарджик

Площ: 115.10 хектара

РИОСВ: Пазарджик ул. "Гурко" N3 ет.4 п.к.220

Документи на обявяване:ЗАПОВЕД No.РД404 от 03.04.2003

Цели на обявяване :

1. Опазване на характерен ландшафт.


Парапланер

Археология В с. Семчиново и с. Варвара са открити останки от средновековните крепости, множество църкви и параклиси, метеорологичната станция, непосредствено под паметника на в. Милеви скали 1593 м. н.в.



-          Град Септември е сред малкото, които са на 100% газифицирани.
- Точно така. Газифициран е целият град, включително и оранжерията по пътя за село Ветрен, с което се променя самият начин на отглеждане на зеленчуци. Ние сме една от първите общини в страната, която направи проекти по Закона за енергийна ефективност и двете големи училища в града, едно училище в с.Семчиново, както и двете детски градини в Септември са газифицирани. Едната градина е изцало санирана, сменена е дограмата, инсталациите, всичко. Другите сме ги обновили частично-сменени са дограмите, инсталациите, котелните помещения. Всичко това е извършено чрез кредит, който беше гласуван от общинския съвет.
- В момента Министерството на финансите наложи изискване чрез постановление за общинските бюджети, което както и да се погледне си, е чист рекет - 10% от бюджета да се заделя за непредвидени обстоятелства?
- Благодаря ви за този въпрос, защото това е голям удар срещу общинските бюджети. Миналата година този остатъчен процент беще 7, сега вече е 10 %. Това е противоконституционно и противозаконно. В закона е казано, че трябва война или потоп да стане, точно така е записано - форсмажорни обстоятелства. А такива обстоятелства през 2006 не е имало. За нашата община става дума за около 250 хил. лева, което е сериозна сума.


Горско стопанство, "ТЕЛЕКАБЕЛ" АД, асфалтосмесителните инсталации в село Семчиново с оператор "Пътища"АД-Пазарджик и база Тополница  с оператор "Пътстрой"АД-Пазарджик.

В Малкобеловския карстов басейн, разположен в западното подножие на Родопите. Формирал се е подземен карстов поток, който в долната си част е напорен, а в горната - ненапорен. Подхранването на карстовите води се осъществява от валежи, паднали в разкритията и водосбора им, а дренирането - от извори. Повечето от изворите са разположени в северната и североизточната част на басейна. От ненапорната част са изворите Студената вода при с. Малко Белово с дебит около 20 l/s, западно от Симеоновец - 7-8 l/s, изворите при с. Семчиново и други. Част от карстовата вода се излива в алувиалните наслаги на терасата на р. Марица, която е е заблатена в тези участъци. По разлом от напорната част излиза термална вода с дебит 40-60 l/s и температура на водата 230С (извор "Топлата вода"). Сумарният естествен ресурс, определен на базата на дебитите на изворите, заедно с субтермалната вода възлиза на около 80 l/s, при приблизителен модул на подземен отток около 1.5 l/s.km2. Прогнозно-експлоатационните ресурси са по-ниски - около 55-60 l/s. От тях има данни за експлоатация на около 10 l/s. Не се взима предвид сезонното използване на извора "Топлата вода" за рекреационни цели - водата му се използва за пълнене на басейни. Тук не е оценено и количеството карстова вода постъпваща в терасата на р. Марица. То е включено в ресурсната оценка на поровите води на Горнотракийската низина.





Не ме питайте дали съм гласувал или не. Всички гласувахме. За нас е добре, че един силен човек, и то кореняк, дойде на власт." Така бай Денко Стоянов коментира вота за известния бизнесмен Димитър Джамов в пазарджишкото село Семчиново. "Местните хора са горди и никога не са избирали слаб управник", продължава 65-годишният пенсионер. Освен това бай Денко е сигурен, че семчиновци, и то младите, ще се върнат от гурбет и ще разкрасят още повече родното място.
Родопското село е сгушено под западния склон на планината в рядко красива местност. Някога силни хора от партията, пак с корен оттук, са се постарали да има най-важните за едно населено място заведения, обществени сгради и инфраструктура. Всичко обаче е остаряло и е в рамките на соцреализма. Бай Денко веднага съобщава болката на хората. А тя е, че липсва канализация. "Срамота е село с такъв център, такова училище и читалище още да е на септични ями", подкрепят го и други местни хора. Канализацията е била една от целите на бившата вече кметица Маргарита Даскалова, но тя не е успяла да осъществи този проект. Сега всички са вперили поглед в Димитър Джамов. Бившият шампион по борба и бизнесмен отвя конкуренцията с повече от 90%. Той обаче е наясно с гордостта на местните хора и споделя пред "Стандарт", че управлението ще бъде изцяло в техните ръце.
Другата гордост на семчиновци е красивата природа наоколо и възможностите за селски туризъм. Една от атракциите е туристическият комплекс "Милеви скали", на 15 км навътре в Родопите. От едноименната местност до селото е час път пеша, но има и асфалтирано трасе за автомобилистите. Над местността е и самият връх Милеви скали с надморска височина 1589 метра. При хубаво време семчиновци показват на туристите великолепния изглед, който се открива към Тракия. Вече много чужденци, особено от Германия, познават мястото и идват тук през лятото. Сега с помощта на новия кмет и на местните първенци всички са сигурни, че този вид туризъм ще се разрасне. По-заможните хора вече имат кокетни вили, където от две-три лета посрещат десетки западни туристи.
"Проблемът ни още е, че не всички могат да си намерят работа", коментират хората на площада. Най-големият удар те са преживели, когато преди години затвори врати гигантът завод за стоманени тръби. В него работеха стотици и хиляди от селата в община Септември. Затова някои млади са предпочели чужбина, други развиват земеделие, а трети са по София и Пловдив. Хората ще се върнат - категоричен е бай Денко -  семчиновци разчитат на Джамов и затова в 3000-то село повечето са дали гласа си за него. "Нека да встъпя в длъжност, пък тогава ще видим", са първите думи на бизнесмена.



Санекс ООД е създадена през 1997 година в гр.Пловдив и оттогава се занимава с дейности в областта на телекомуникациите.В края на 2005 година фирмата получи разрешение за изграждане на комуникационно съоръжение на местността „Милеви скали" през което стана възможно изграждането на безжично трасе до Община Батак. Санекс ООД е регистрирана по общи лицензии 217 и 220

HEAT TRANSFER

          Heat can be transferred by three processes: conduction, convection, and radiation. Conduction is the transfer of heat through a solid object; it is this process that makes the handle of a poker hot, even if only the tip is in the fire. Convection transfers heat through the exchange of hot and cold molecules; this is the process through which water in the kettle becomes uniformly hot even though only the bottom of the kettle contacts the flame. Radiation is the transfer of heat via electromagnetic (usually infrared) radiation; this is the principal mechanism through which a fire warms a room.
            Heat Transfer, in physics, process by which energy in the form of heat is exchanged between bodies or parts of the same body at different temperatures. Heat is transferred by convection, radiation, or conduction. Although these three processes can occur simultaneously, it is not unusual for one mechanism to overshadow the other two. For example, heat is transferred predominantly  by conduction through the brick wall of house, a pan of water on a stove is largely heated by conduction, and the earth receives heat from the sun almost wholly by radiation.
            Conduction
            The only method of heat transfer in opaque solids is conduction. If the temperature at one end of a metal rod is raised by heating, heat is conducted to the colder end. The exact mechanism of heat conduction in solids is not entirely understood, but it is believed to be partially due to the motion of free electrons, which transport energy in a temperature difference is applied. This theory helps to explain why good electrical conductors also tend to be good heat conductors. It was not until 1822 that the French mathematician Jean-Baptiste Joseph Fourier gave precise mathematical expression to what is now called Fourier's law of heat conduction. This law states that the rate at which heat is conducted through a body per unit cross-sectional area is proportional to the negative of the temperature gradient existing in the body.
            The proportionality factor is called the thermal conductivity of the material. Materials such as gold, silver, and copper have high thermal conductivities and conduct heat readily, but materials such as glass and asbestos have values of thermal conductivity hundreds and thousands of times smaller, conduct heat poorly, and are referred to as insulators. In engineering applications it is frequently necessary to know the rate at which heat will be conducted through a solid across which a known temperature difference exists. Sophisticated mathematical techniques are required to establish this, especially if the process varies with time, the phenomenon then being known as transient-heat conduction. With the aid of analogue and digital computers, these problems are now being solved for bodies of complex geometry.
            Convection
            If a temperature difference arises within a liquid or a gas, then fluid motion will almost certainly occur. This transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another, a process called convection. The motion of the fluid may be natural or forced. If a liquid or gas is heated, its density or mass per unit volume generally decreases. If the liquid or gas is in a gravitational field, the hotter, less dense fluid rises while the colder, denser fluid sinks. This kind of motion, due solely to the non-uniformity of the fluid's temperature, is called natural convection. Forced convection is achieved by subjecting the fluid to a pressure gradient and thereby forcing motion to occur according to the laws of mechanics.
            Suppose, for example, that water in a pan is heated from below. The liquid closest to the bottom is warmed by heat conducted through the bottom of the pan. It expands and its density decreases; the hot water as a result rises to the top and some of the cooler fluid descends towards the bottom, thus setting up a circulatory motion. The cooler liquid is again heated by conduction; the warmer liquid at the top loses its heat by conduction and radiation into the air at the top of the pan. Similarly, in a vertical gas-filled chamber, such as the air space between two window panes in a double-gazed window, the air near the cold outer pane will move down and the air near the inner, warmer pane will rise, leading to a circulatory motion.
            The heating of a room by a radiator depends less on radiation than on natural convection currents, the hot air rising along the wall, drawing cooler air back to the radiator from the rest of the room.Because of the tendency of hot air to rise and of cool air to sink, radiators should be placed neither floor and air-conditioning outlets near the ceiling for maximum efficiency. Natural convection is also responsible for the rising of the hot water and steam in natural-convection boilers and for the draught in a chimney. Convection also determines the movement of large air masses above the earth, the action of the winds, the formation of clouds, ocean currents, and the transfer of heat from the interior of the sun to its surface.
                        Radiation
            Radiation is fundamentally different from both conduction and convection in that the substances exchanging heat need not be in contact with each other. They can, in fact, be separated by a vacuum. Radiation is a term generally applied to all kinds of electromagnetic-wave phenomena. Some radiation phenomena can be described  in terms of wave theory, but the only satisfactory general account of electromagnetic radiation is quantum theory. In 1905 Albert Einstein proposed that radiation sometimes displays quantized behaviour: in the photoelectric effect the radiation behaves like tiny "bullets", called photons, rather than as waves. The quantized nature of energy had been postulated before Einstein's paper, and in 1900 the German physicist Max Planck had used quantum theory and the mathematical formalism of statistical mechanicsto drive a fundamental law of radiation. The mathematical expression of this law, called Planck's distribution, relates the intensity of radiant energy emitted by a body at a given wavelength to the temperature of the body. This is the maximum amount of radiant energy that can be emitted by a body at a particular temperature. Only an ideal body (blackbody) emits radiation exactly according to Planck's law. Real bodies emit at a somewhat reduced intensity.
            The contribution of all frequencies to the radiant energy emitted is called the emissive power of the body, the amount of energy emitted by unit surface area per unit time. As can be shown from Planck's law, the emissive power of a surface is proportional to the fourth power of the absolute temperature. The proportionallity factor is called the Stefan-Boltzmann, who, in 1879 and 1884 respectively, discovered the fourth power relationship for the emissive power. According to Planck's law, all substances emit radian energy merely by virtue of having temperature above absolute zero. The higher the temperature, the greater the amount of energy emitted. In addition to emitting, all substances are capable of absorbing radiation. Thus, although an ice cube is continuously emitting radiant energy, it will melt if an incandescent lamp is focused on it because it will be absorbing a greater amount of heat than it is emitting.
            Opaque surfaces can absorb or reflect incident radiation. Generally, bull, rough surfaces absorb more heat than bright, polished surfaces, and bright surfaces reflect more radiant energy than dull surfaces. In addition, good absorbers are also good emitters; good reflectors, or poor absorbers, are poor emitters. Thus, cooking utensils generally have dull bottoms for good absorption and polished sides for minimum emission thus maximizing the net heat tuansfer into the contents of the pot.
            Some substances, including many gases and glass, are capable of transmitting large amounts of radiation. It is experimentally observed that the absorbing, reflecting, and transmitting properties of a substance depend upon the wavelength of the incident radiation. Glass, for example, transmits large amounts of short wavelength of the incident radiation. Glass, for example, transmits large amounts of short wavelength ultraviolet radiation, but is a poor transmitter of long wavelength infrared radiation. A consequence of Planck's distribution is that the wavelength at which the maximum amount of radiant energy is emitted by a body decreases as the temperature increases. Wien's diaplacement law, named after the German physicist Wilhelm Wien, is a mathematical expression of this observation and states that the wavelength of maximum energy, expressed in micrometer (millionths of a merte), multiplied by the temperature of the body in Kelvins, is equal to a constant, 2878. This fact, together with the transmitting properties of glass mentioned above, explains the warming of the greenhouses. Radiant energy from the sun, predominantly of visible wavelengths, is transmitted through the glass and enters the greenhouse. The energy emitted by the contents of the greenhouse, however, which emit primarily at longer, infrared, wavelengths, is not transmitted out through the glass. Thus, although the air temperature outside the greenhouse may de low, the temperature inside the greenhouse will be much higher because there is a sizable net heat transfer into it.
            In addition the heat transfer processes that result in raising or lowering the temperatures of the participating bodies, heat transfer can also produce phase changes such as the melting of ice or the boiling of water. In engineering, heat transfer processes are usually designed to take advantage of these phenomena. In the case of space capsules re-erterig the atmosphere of the earth at very high speed, a heat shield that melts in a prescribed manner by the process called ablation is provided to prevent overheating of the interior of the capsule. Essentially, the heating produced by the friction of the atmosphere is used up in melting the heat shield and not in raising the temperature of the capsule.

Билборд


Преди време бях направил едно проучване на пазара на Билболрдове – кой ги поставя, колко пари дава и тн, дано ви е от полза.

Тези произвеждат, монтират и узаконяват
http://www.idostyle.com/
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На този сайт има списък с всички оператори на билбордове в София (заедно с цените):
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София
бул. "Патриарх Евтимии" 16А
тел./факс 02/986 36 40; 980 69 34;
088/8921941
e-mail: office@bsb-focus.com
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За въпроси, моля, обръщайте се към:
Николета Балджиева
Technical Development Director
E-mail: nbaldjieva@newsoutdoor.bg

Цена на една страна:
Градове: 240-970 Euro /за 2 седмици/
Магистрали: 300 Euro /за 2 седмици/
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Очакваме ви в нашето ателие на адрес:
София 1303, ул."Тодор Александров" 73
(на кръстовището с бул. "Опълченска ")
тел. 920 70 57
GSM 0898 451 294
e-mail: manoloo@abv.bg
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София 1504
бул. Цар Освободител 17А
тел. 02 / 943 83 58
02 / 943 83 78
GSM 088 999 1 777
факс 02 / 943 04 60
outdoor@radea.bg
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АГЕНЦИЯ ИМИДЖ
1000 София
ул. "Г. С. Раковски" 145 - Г
тел.: 02/ 980 32 02; 980 56 09; 981 98 40
факс: 02/ 986 42 56
e-mail: image@imageagency.net
agencyimage@hotmail.com
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Street Plakat
адрес: 49 Evlogi Georgiev Blvd.
телефон: +35929880671
факс: +35929807170
email: nelly@street-plakat.com
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Kresly Advertising.Jst
29 Evl. Georgiev bul.
Bulgaria BG-1142 Sofia
Daniela Velkova
+359 2 986 06 89
+359 2 989 50 33
kresly@abv.bg
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"ПИЗА БОРД КОМПАНИЯ"
Адрес: 1113, София, ул. Галилео Галилей N42, бл.3, вх.А, ап. 3
Телефон/Факс: 02/870 06 18
Мобилен: 0899 15 16 16
E-mail: pizaboard@mail.bg
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Suns
1485
Advertising agency.
address: 1421 Sofia, 6 Plana planina str. bl. 129 ent.G-2 fl.1 apt. 13, tel.: +359 2 9631163, fax: +359 2 9632290
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Идея Комм
Адрес: гр. София
Рекламен отдел
ул. "Върбица" 13
тел.:9430936
факс:9430936
E-mail: ideacomm@spnet.net

Информация: Външна реклама
Сфера на дейност: Външна реклама
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Импресия 2003 ООД
Рекламни агенции
1000 София ул. Московска № 3-а, ет. 7 тел.: 029817029
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Рекламна мрежа 5 ООД София пл. България №1, НДК, оф.135 02 - 916 69 94
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Булмедия
Адрес: гр. София
1113
кв. Изток, ул. Чарлз Дарвин 16
тел: +359 (2) 971 71 42
+359 (2) 971 71 43
факс: +359 (2) 971 71 12
E-mail: office@bulmedia.net
Интернет сайт: http://www.bulmedia.net
Информация: Електронните билбордове. Външна реклама.
Сфера на дейност: Външна реклама
Реклама на електронни билбордове.
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Булмедия АД
адрес: София 1124,ул.Гогол 9
телефон: 9445225
факс: 8467247
email: bulmedia@pc-link.net
основана: 1997 г.
персонал: 5
за контакт: Натали Раева - Мениджър продажби
услуги: външна реклама
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Нигея Комуникейшън
Адрес: гр. София
1303, бул. Инж. Иван Иванов 70А
тел.: 02/ 9365 111; 02/ 9889 210
факс: 02/9889 211
E-mail: info@nigea.com ; svetlana@nigea.com
Интернет сайт: http://www.nigea.com
Информация: Nigea Communication предлага проектиране, изработка, монтаж и локации на:
Билборд пана/Постер афиш и тип Пиза/ отпечатване на билбордове върху фолио, винил тип PVC, хартиен носител.
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Импрес to rent
Адрес: гр. София
ул.Н.Бончев 8 А
тел.: 0888318714, 0887143899
E-mail: mail@impres.bg
Интернет сайт: http://impres.bg
Информация: Външно рекламна медия, рекламни съоръжения под наем - билбордове(пизи), сити лайт(ракети), виенски стълб, калкани, табели, тотеми, транспаранти
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Акцент адвъртайзинг ООД
Адрес: гр. София
1606, бул. Македония № 19Б
тел.: 02/ 8520023, 02/ 952 61 14; 0898 49 10 55
E-mail: office_sf@accentbg.net, accent_sf@bgmreja.com
Интернет сайт: http://www.accentbg.net
Информация: Акцент адвъртайзинг ООД е рекламна агенция, специализирана в автобусна реклама, изработка на билбордове, тотеми, външни и вътрешни реклами, печат на рекламни материали и търговия с електронни табла.
Сфера на дейност: Външна реклама
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Райц-2
Адрес: гр. София
1404 ул. Н. В. Гогол 5
тел.: 02 843 52 17
E-mail: raitz-2@cablebg.net
Интернет сайт: http://www.raitz-2.com
Информация: Билбордове в София и страната, широформатен печат, транспортна реклама, медийна реклама, печат в собствена печатна база
Сфера на дейност: Външна реклама
Билбордове
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http://www.artzone.bg/  по скоро са производители.
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Статус 1 АД по скоро са производители
Адрес: гр. София
бул. Цариградско шосе №9
тел.: 02 / 944 60 07, 944 29 88
E-mail: info@status-1.com ; status@bitex.com
Интернет сайт: http://www.status-1.com/
Информация: Външна реклама, градско обзавеждане.
Сфера на дейност: Външна реклама

Hypno

bombards with images and suggestions

repetition, rhythmic speech

imagery and command

talk distractingly and purposive repeating something that has nothing to do so as to forget, distract and then attack

he cures people by org sessions

mental transaction in which person focus their attention to so that they stop being critical and become more open to suggestion

trans like state - absorbed watching and doing something

time distortion, insensitivity to outside

the big thing is suggestion

ailyak is a form of mass illusion

ritual, suggestion repetition, thus people can become more susceptible to change

heightened focus of attention when something is rhythmic and repetitive and when it goes on

let your voice be or by clapping, trance dancers watching

something the same we should achieve with the word - tratata

thus we stop critically evaluating and just go with the flow

do not tell them to do something, tell them that something is good/bad and leave them on their own to do something

lead them to be focus and to believe that the leader is their pipeline to heaven

leader- enough personal will power,determination, clunky

exploit people's natural tendency to obey authority

exercise social pressure to comply whatever the authority says

meliorative suggestion - to suggest memories that are simply untrue

Разочаровани ли сте от Skype 4? Добрият стар Skype 3 е все още тук

Много хора успяват трудно да се адпатират към нови неща, така става и със Skype 4. Тази нова версия промени доста интерфейса на Skype, което стана неудобно за много хора свикнали със стария изглед. До скоро намирах линк в страницата за сваляне на Skype 4, който ме водеше към старата версия. Сега не мога да го открия и ще бъда благодарен ако някой го сподели в коментар.
Но спасение от Skype 4 все още има – Skype 3.8 (последната официална версия на Skype 3) може да свалите от тук! Не забравяйте после да отказвате обновяване на програмата.
Сайта www.oldapps.com е хранилище за стари версии, не се колебайте да търсите в него, когато ви притрябва стара версия на програма.

сряда, 23 декември 2009 г.

Electronic Optic Tint Changing Ski Goggles

These ski snowboard goggles use electronic optic technology developed for Air Force pilots that adjusts the tint of the lenses from light to dark at the touch of a button, providing flexibility, comfort, and safety for skiers and snowboarders while ensuring exceptional image clarity.

Perfectly compatible with helmets, the goggles completely eliminate the need to carry multiple pairs of goggles with various tints in order to adapt to changing light conditions.

Its unique LCD-like VALiD™ lens construction permits the tint to change from light to dark in as little as 1/10th of a second when the internal liquid crystals are activated by two included CR2032 batteries that provide up to 200 hours of use.

http://www.hammacher.com/Product/Default.aspx?sku=77954&refsku=76155